EPD's and Genetic Evaluation
   

Below you will find some helpful information concerning Expected Progeny Differences and other terms used in the Simmental business.  If you would like more information on any of these topics try the ASA's website.

Using the following chart you may compare any bull to the Simmental breed.  Simply find an EPD from any bull and locate it in the chart.  Then go across to the column on the left (%) and that will tell you what percentile that EPD is when compared to the rest of the Simmental breed.

Below the chart you will find complete explanations for each EPD including the carcass trait EPDs.  We hope you find this information useful.

   

Purebred Simmental Sires Fall 2012 Genetic Evaluation Chart

1 16.7 -2.2 83.4 126.7 15.1 34.8 68.9 51.5 -0.43 0.4 -0.1 1.04 146.52 78.14
2 15.8 -1.7 81 122.5 14.3 33.4 67.2 48.6 -0.41 0.36 -0.1 0.99 141.86 76.41
3 15.2 -1.3 79.4 119.9 13.8 32.5 66.1 46.8 -0.4 0.34 -0.09 0.96 138.91 75.31
4 14.8 -1.1 78.2 117.9 13.4 31.9 65.3 45.4 -0.39 0.32 -0.09 0.93 136.69 74.49
5 14.4 -0.9 77.3 116.3 13.1 31.3 64.6 44.3 -0.38 0.31 -0.09 0.91 134.88 73.82
10 13.2 -0.2 74 110.7 12 29.5 62.3 40.4 -0.35 0.26 -0.08 0.84 128.69 71.51
15 12.4 0.3 71.8 107 11.2 28.2 60.7 37.9 -0.33 0.23 -0.08 0.8 124.51 69.96
20 11.8 0.7 70.1 104 10.7 27.3 59.5 35.8 -0.32 0.2 -0.07 0.76 121.18 68.72
25 11.2 1 68.6 101.5 10.2 26.4 58.4 34 -0.31 0.18 -0.07 0.73 118.33 67.66
30 10.7 1.3 67.2 99.2 9.7 25.7 57.5 32.5 -0.3 0.16 -0.07 0.7 115.75 66.71
35 10.3 1.5 66 97 9.3 25 56.6 31 -0.29 0.14 -0.06 0.67 113.39 65.83
40 9.9 1.8 64.8 95 8.9 24.3 55.8 29.6 -0.27 0.12 -0.06 0.64 111.12 64.99
45 9.4 2 63.6 93.1 8.5 23.6 55 28.3 -0.27 0.1 -0.06 0.62 108.96 64.18
50 9 2.3 62.5 91.2 8.1 23 54.2 26.9 -0.26 0.09 -0.06 0.6 106.81 63.38
55 8.6 2.5 61.4 89.2 7.8 22.4 53.4 25.6 -0.25 0.07 -0.06 0.57 104.66 62.58
60 8.2 2.8 60.2 87.3 7.4 21.7 52.5 24.3 -0.24 0.05 -0.05 0.55 102.49 61.78
65 7.7 3 59 85.3 7 21.1 51.7 22.9 -0.23 0.04 -0.05 0.52 100.22 60.94
70 7.3 3.3 57.8 83.2 6.6 20.4 50.8 21.4 -0.22 0.02 -0.05 0.49 97.86 60.06
75 6.8 3.6 56.4 80.9 6.1 19.6 49.9 19.8 -0.2 0 -0.05 0.46 95.28 59.1
80 6.2 3.9 54.9 78.3 5.6 18.7 48.8 18.1 -0.19 -0.02 -0.04 0.43 92.43 58.04
85 5.6 4.3 53.2 75.3 5 17.8 47.6 16 -0.18 -0.05 -0.04 0.39 89.11 56.81
90 4.8 4.7 51 71.6 4.3 16.5 46 13.4 -0.16 -0.08 -0.03 0.35 84.92 55.25
95 3.6 5.4 47.7 66.1 3.2 14.7 43.7 9.6 -0.13 -0.13 -0.03 0.28 78.73 52.95
Average 9 2.3 62.5 91.2 8.1 23 54.2 26.9 -0.26 0.09 -0.06 0.6 106.81 63.38
Percentile Calving Birth Weaning Yearling Maternl Maternl Maternl CW YG Marb BF REA API TI
Level Ease Weight Weight Weight C Ease Milk WW              
 

Hybrid Sires Fall 2012 Genetic Evaluation Chart

1 18.8 -3.8 81.5 131 14.6 32.7 66.6 51.5 -0.44 0.77 -0.1 0.95 166.23 85.69
2 17.7 -3.2 78.8 126.1 13.7 31.4 64.8 48.2 -0.41 0.7 -0.1 0.9 159.3 83.01
3 17.1 -2.9 77.1 122.9 13.2 30.6 63.6 46.2 -0.39 0.67 -0.09 0.87 154.91 81.31
4 16.6 -2.6 75.8 120.6 12.8 30 62.7 44.7 -0.38 0.64 -0.09 0.85 151.61 80.04
5 16.2 -2.4 74.7 118.7 12.4 29.5 62 43.4 -0.37 0.61 -0.08 0.82 148.92 79
10 14.8 -1.6 71 112.1 11.3 27.8 59.5 39.1 -0.33 0.53 -0.07 0.76 139.7 75.44
15 13.8 -1.1 68.6 107.6 10.5 26.7 57.9 36.3 -0.31 0.48 -0.07 0.71 133.48 73.04
20 13.1 -0.7 66.6 104.1 9.8 25.8 56.6 34 -0.29 0.43 -0.06 0.67 128.53 71.13
25 12.5 -0.4 65 101.1 9.3 25 55.5 32 -0.27 0.4 -0.06 0.64 124.29 69.49
30 11.9 0 63.4 98.4 8.8 24.3 54.4 30.2 -0.25 0.36 -0.05 0.61 120.45 68.02
35 11.4 0.2 62.1 95.9 8.4 23.7 53.5 28.6 -0.24 0.33 -0.05 0.58 116.95 66.66
40 10.8 0.5 60.7 93.5 8 23.1 52.6 27 -0.22 0.3 -0.05 0.56 113.57 65.36
45 10.4 0.8 59.4 91.2 7.6 22.5 51.8 25.5 -0.21 0.27 -0.04 0.54 110.35 64.11
50 9.9 1 58.2 88.9 7.2 21.9 50.9 24 -0.2 0.25 -0.04 0.51 107.15 62.88
55 9.4 1.3 56.9 86.6 6.7 21.3 50.1 22.6 -0.19 0.22 -0.04 0.49 103.95 61.64
60 8.9 1.6 55.6 84.3 6.3 20.7 49.2 21.1 -0.17 0.19 -0.03 0.46 100.72 60.4
65 8.4 1.8 54.3 81.9 5.9 20.1 48.3 19.5 -0.16 0.16 -0.03 0.44 97.34 59.1
70 7.9 2.1 52.9 79.4 5.5 19.5 47.4 17.9 -0.14 0.13 -0.03 0.41 93.84 57.74
75 7.3 2.4 51.4 76.7 5 18.8 46.4 16.1 -0.13 0.1 -0.02 0.38 90.01 56.26
80 6.7 2.8 49.7 73.6 4.5 18 45.2 14.1 -0.11 0.06 -0.02 0.35 85.77 54.63
85 5.9 3.2 47.8 70.1 3.8 17.1 43.9 11.8 -0.09 0.01 -0.01 0.31 80.81 52.72
90 5 3.7 45.3 65.7 3 16 42.3 8.9 -0.07 -0.04 -0.01 0.27 74.59 50.32
95 3.6 4.4 41.7 59.1 1.9 14.3 39.8 4.7 -0.03 -0.12 0 0.2 65.38 46.76
Average 9.9 1 58.2 88.9 7.2 21.9 50.9 24 -0.2 0.25 -0.04 0.51 107.15 62.88
Percentile Calving Birth Weaning Yearling Maternl Maternl Maternl CW YG Marb BF REA API TI
Level Ease Weight Weight Weight C Ease Milk WW              
 
 

The Fall 2012 ASA Genetic Evaluation marks the first time major breeds have expressed their EPDs on a common base (i.e., the same scale). The common base was a natural evolution for the RAAA/ASA genetic evaluation partnership. Though forming a common base will initially lead to some confusion, the boards of both organizations unanimously agreed that it was a positive step for the beef industry — a step that allows producers to directly compare genetic predictions from the largest multi-breed database in the world.

As with any progress, there is change. Breeders and commercial producers will need to adjust to the new base. Much like converting from Fahrenheit to Celsius, it may be a struggle at first; however, over time we will all grow accustomed to the new scale.

The change to the base does not change the evaluation of animals;it just changes the magnitude of the EPD. It has the same impact on all animals. Be sure to use the new percentile tables to develop a "feel" for the new EPD base.

The EPD itself does not imply “good” or “bad” performance, only whether the performance of progeny is expected to be above or below that of progeny from average parents.  The birth weight and calving ease EPDs are the most commonly misunderstood.  For the birth weight EPD, positive values indicate heavier-than-average birth weights.  For calving ease EPD, the more positive the value, the easier the bull calves. 

The leadership of the American Simmental Association and the Red Angus Association of America have made EPD’s in both businesses more useful and less complicated for the cattle industry.  Our Fall 2012 EPD’s are expressed on a new common-base, so all animals in both breed databases are directly comparable.  Simmental and Red Angus have developed the most sophisticated scientific technologies to evaluate every animal regardless of breed makeup.  We encourage you to study percentile ranks and breed averages of these new Multi-Breed EPD’s.  Although trait averages have changed with this innovative improvement, remember, Simmental still perform like Simmental and Red Angus still function like Red Angus.  In addition, Simmental  feature Economic Indexes.  No seedstock source provides more effective economic selection support for maternal (All Purpose Index) or terminal  (Terminal Index) mating plans.

ASA EPD Page

EPD Definitions

Calving Ease (CE)
Heifers (H) - The ease with which a bull's calves are born to first calf heifers.  A first calf heifer is defined as a female calving for the first time at 33 months of age or less.
Cows (C) - The ease with which a bull's calves are born to mature cows.  A cow is defined as a female calving for a second or subsequent time.
Expected progeny differences are reported as deviations in the percent of unassisted births.  When comparing calving ease EPDs of two sires, the larger EPD indicates a higher percent of unassisted births for calves sired by this bull.

Birth Weight (BW)
Expected progeny performance is reported in pounds.  The EPD value predicts the difference in average birth weight of a bull's progeny compared to progeny of all other bulls evaluated.  A positive value indicates heavier-than-average birth weights while a negative value indicates lighter-than-average birth weights.

Weaning Weight (WW)
Calf weight taken between 160 and 250 days of age and adjusted to 205 days of age and a mature dam equivalent.  Expected progeny performance is reported in pounds.  The EPD value predicts the difference in average 205-day weight of a bull's progeny compared to progeny of all other bulls evaluated.  A positive value indicates heavier-than-average weaning weights while a negative value indicates lighter-than-average weaning weights.

Yearling Weight (YW)
Weight taken between 330 and 440 days of age and adjusted to 365 days of age and a mature dam equivalent.  Expected progeny performance is reported in pounds.  The EPD value predicts the difference in average 365-day weight of a bull's progeny compared to progeny of all other bull's evaluated.  A positive value indicates heavier-than-average yearling weights while a negative value indicates lighter-than-average yearling weights.

Maternal Calving Ease (MCE)
Heifers (H) - The ease with which a sire's daughters calve as first-calf heifers.  A first-calf heifer is defined as a female calving for the first time at 33 months of age or less.
Cows (C) - The ease with which a sire's daughters calve as mature cows.  A cow is defined as a female calving for a second or subsequent time.  Expected progeny differences are reported as deviations in the percent of unassisted births.  When comparing maternal calving ease EPDs of two sires, the larger EPD indicates a higher percent of unassisted births for calves born out of this sire's daughters.

Maternal Milk (MM)
The milking ability of a bull's daughter.  Expected progeny performance is expressed in pounds of calving weaning weight.  The EPD value predicts the difference (due to milking ability) in average 205-day weight of a bull's daughters' calves compared to calves of all other bulls evaluated.  Positive values indicate above average milking ability of daughters while negative values indicate below average milking ability.

Maternal Weaning Weight (MWW)
The weaning weight of a bull's daughters' calves.  Expected progeny performance is reported in pounds.  The EPD value predicts the difference in average 205-day weight of a bull's daughters' calves compared to daughters of all other bulls evaluated.  The evaluation reflects both the milking ability of the bull's daughters and the growth potential of their calves.  A positive value indicates heavier-than-average weaning weights while a negative value indicates lighter-than-average weaning weights.

Carcass Weight (CW)
The hot carcass weight of a bull’s progeny.  Expected progeny performance is reported in pounds and adjusted to a slaughter age of 475 days.  The EPD predicts the difference in average carcass weight of a bull’s progeny compared to progeny of all other bulls evaluated.  A positive number indicates heavier-than-average carcass weights while a negative value indicates lower-than-average carcass weights.

Ribeye Area (REA)
Predict the average difference in ribeye area in an animal’s progeny when compared to the progeny of another animal at a given age endpoint. Expressed in square inches.

Marbling Score (Marb)
A subjective evaluation of the amount and distribution of intramuscular fat.  Degree of marbling is evaluated in the ribeye muscle between the 12th and 13th rib and is a major factor in determining USDA quality grade.  Marbling scores range from 1 (devoid) to 10 (abundant).  Expected progeny performance is reported in tenths of a marbling score and adjusted to a slaughter age of 475 days.  The EPD value predicts the difference in average marbling score of a bull’s progeny compared to progeny of all other evaluated bulls.  A positive value indicates higher-than-average marbling scores while a negative value indicates lower-than-average marbling scores.

Backfat (BF or FAT)
Estimate the average differences that are expected in external fat thickness at the 12th and 13th rib betweenprogeny of different animals. Expressed in inches at a given age endpoint.

Yield Grade  (YG)
Predict the average differences in cutability that can be expected between the progeny of animals at a given age endpoint. As with all EPDs, YG is expressed as a deviation. Negative values are desirable. To use it, one must keep in mind that it is in yield grade units. Therefore, lower is better. For example, a bull with a -.33 YG EPD would be expected to sire offspring that are 1/3 of yield grade better (lower) than a zero bull. If zero bulls sired an average yield of 3.0 in a particular environment and management system, offspring of a -0.33 bull would be expected to have an average yield grade of 2.67 (1/3 of a yield grade better/lower).

Stayability  (STAY)
Stayability is defined as the probability that a sire’s daughters entering the herd will stay in production through 6 years of age. The Stayability EPD provides an estimate of how long a sire’s daughters will stay in the herd compared to another sire in the same evaluation. Higher values indicate greater stayability.

SIMMENTAL – API $ and TI $ EPD INDEXES
The API$ AND TI$ EPD Indexes were designed with the aim of simplifying and improving the genetic selection process. These genetic indexes combine relevant EPDs along with economic factors into numbers that makes sense. EPDs such as calving ease, growth, carcass traits, etc. are weighted along with economic data provided by Cattle-Fax such as the cost of feed, choice-select spread, etc. The product of these complex calculations gives us a real world method to compare the merits of different animals. The API and TI indexes calculate the estimated differences between bulls in net dollars returned per cow exposed for two different herd scenarios as described below.

All-Purpose Index (API): Evaluates sires for use on the entire cow herd (bred to both Angus first-calf heifers and mature cows) with the portion of their daughters required to maintain herd size retained and the remaining heifers and steers put on feed and sold grade and yield.

Terminal Index (TI): Evaluates sire for use on mature Angus cows with all offspring put on feed and sold grade and yield. Consequently, maternal traits such as milk, stayability, and maternal calving ease are not considered in the index.

 

   
Other Definitions and Information

Nondiluted
All blacks are nondiluters and will not sire gray calves when used on black or nondiluter red cows. A nondiluter red will sire only black or red calves when used on black cows.

Homozygous Black
Will only sire black calves when used on black or nondiluter red cows. You will get mostly gray calves when used on yellow cows or red cows that have the dilution gene.

Hetrozygous Black
Will sire both black and red calves when used on nondiluter red cows. When used on yellow or red cows that have the dilution gene you will get roughly half red and the rest will be gray, with some blacks.

Homozygous Polled
All calves will be polled.

Hetrozygous Polled
Approximately half the calves will be polled out of horned cows.

Polled / Scurred
Approximately half the calves will be polled out of homed cows.

   

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